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Researchers Is Not Sure About Vaping-Related Illnesses

List of Dangers of E-cigarettes the Facts You Need to Know

this past May March 20 years since the state
of Minnesota and the tobacco companies
companies reached a six billion dollar
settlement at the heart of the
settlement was the fact that tobacco
companies were targeting youth and
teenagers with their advertising now
some of the settlement money was used to
fund public health programs and
anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis
on teens and young adults while the
number of teens who smoke cigarettes has
fallen a new option has emerged
electronic cigarettes also referred to
as a cigarette or vaping re cigarettes a
safe way to smoke here to discuss as dr.
Taylor Hayes director of Mayo Clinic
nicotine dependence Center welcome back
to the program dr. Hayes thanks for
having me well dr. Hayes whoever
invented the e-cigarette well the the
e-cigarette was probably invented by
some folks in China one company and
somewhere in the mid 2010/11 range it
didn't catch on quickly but since 2011
and definitely has grown in interest and
use particularly through internet sales
and I guess the thing I'd point out is
that we talked about e-cigarettes like
it's one thing and now it's not one
thing any longer
whatever by that there are probably 500
different devices you could purchase on
the internet and about 8,000 different
solutions that you can use in them so
it's also gone through several
generations we used to have what we
called siga like a cigarette you can
still find them they look like
cigarettes have a little LED light on
the end that that looks like the the
burning end of the rod and then there
were refillable versions and now they're
called mods or modifiable they typically
have tanks they have all the elements
that a heating element that's powered by
a battery and a tank for solution but
they are larger that you can interchange
you can alter the voltage and amperage
on the devices so they're not only quite
sophisticated very sophisticated yes so
what's in there
so the basic device is as I said a power
source energy source a battery typically
a lithium-ion battery nowadays
a tank or some kind of cartridge that
holds solution and typically the
solution contains nicotine but not
always intake may contain other
flavorants as well and so when you use
the device the heating element that's
powered by the battery aerosolize is the
solution and then you can inhale it so
that's what the battery is for it's it's
a liquid that you put in there and then
the battery provides the power to
aerosolize the liquid and then you
inhale it right electric heating element
is powered by the battery and that
heating aerosol eise's that solution
then you inhale it when dr. shives asked
who came up with this I thought the
answer was tobacco companies
I thought tobacco companies invented
cigarettes but they definitely are
onboard aren't they yeah well in a way
they were they've been in the tobacco
company that's supported by the Chinese
government or at the time was was the
developer tobacco companies are invested
in e-cigarettes but it's really still I
think the Wild West because although the
FDA is taking on regulatory authority
there really aren't very many
regulations put in place for what
devices can come on the market and what
kind of things that they can have in
them or how they can be used and so
forth are they safer than smoking I mean
the very simple answer is yes
combustible tobacco is much more
dangerous than cigarettes so at the
highest level we'd say yeah
fewer harmful substances or in
e-cigarettes that we think we believe
and and in fact there are some data to
suggest that although you can find some
of the same substances an e-cigarette
aerosol as you can
in combustible tobacco smoke far less so
they are safer in that regard I the the
more detailed answer the question is we
don't know what the net public health
effect is going to be as e-cigarettes
continue to diffuse in the population
you commented on youth use of
e-cigarettes so good news tobacco use is
down in youth bad news cigarette use is
up and I think all the data suggests
that kids who use e-cigarettes are more
likely to convert to combustible tobacco
and more likely to use combustible
tobacco more heavily if they've been an
e-cigarette user so the net public
health benefit is uncertain and I think
that's where the arguments lie but most
of them do contain nicotine right I mean
the kids smoke them or anybody would
smoke a because of the nicotine mainly
yes it's unclear I mean obviously that's
the marketing ploy right to flavor the
the solutions and just as an aside the
FDA really got on a company for
marketing a solution that was marketed
as juice in a box that looked like apple
juice box so they immediately got on
them for that but I think the marketing
to youth the flavorants and so forth do
play a role most of them contain
nicotine the problem is that the labels
aren't always accurate so we don't
always know that they contain the
specified amount and sometimes things
that say they contain nicotine don't and
on the other hand some things that say
they don't contain nicotine may because
there's no good manufacturing process
that the people are held to you you
could make it in your basement if you
want to and sell it on the internet when
a cigarettes first came around what I
remember hearing about them was oh if
there's no smoking you know in this area
you could use the e-cigarettes to make
your way around that or you use
e-cigarettes to help you quit smoking is
there any evidence that e-cigarettes
help you quit smoking
so for adults there is some evidence
it's quite limited that it may help
people quit using combustible tobacco
there's some evidence that the more
often you use an e-cigarette the more
likely you are to ultimately quit using
combustible tobacco on the other hand
currently most adults who use
e-cigarettes are dual users they
continue to use tobacco and smokey
cigarettes so again I did this issue of
public health benefit unclear if if an
individual asked me if I completely
switch from smoking cigarettes to
smoking e-cigarettes only and
exclusively will it reduce the harm
almost certainly the answer is yes
what's the attraction for a teenager and
I guess I mean the same question it
would go for tobacco I mean a lot of the
kids when I when I was a teenager smoked
I don't know exactly what the attraction
was but I guess it made it it made you
feel more grown-up because older people
smoked but I can't quite understand the
and it was the nicotine after a while
but so what's the attraction for an
e-cigarette I mean do they think it does
it look cool or there's a fruit flavor
that does have nicotine in it the ones
that kids are smoking yeah so the
solutions that are mostly marketed to
students and youth are flavored and so I
think that has an attraction not just
fruit flavor but gum flavors and all
kinds of things and the package of them
is packaging is attractive now doctor
chefs you're asking me to remember what
it was what I was thinking when I was a
teenager that's that's hard so what
drives that I think it's acceptance we
know kids who are more open to
experience more sensation seeking or
likely to do it they're more likely to
use if their parents use more likely to
use if their siblings
use and more likely to use if their
friends and close associates use so it's
it's probably a social thing as well
teenagers you know you're everywhere
right yeah so far when you say the peer
group I so far no I have not seen this
in that peer group but I also think it
smells so bad it's just like cigarette
smoke you cannot hide that can't hide
that from mom or dad well could you get
all right we've been talking about
e-cigarettes with the director of the
Mayo Clinic nicotine dependence Center
dr. Jay Taylor Hayes


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